A young woman of 22 years presented with a right abdominal mass and pain. An ultrasound scan done elsewhere was misinterpreted. An IVU was requested which showed no function from the right kidney. There was an opacity lying medially on the right, plus several calculi in the left kidney. A repeat U/S showed a massive pyonephrosis due to obstruction by a calculus at the UPJ.
CASE 2. Marked hepatomegaly is common and it is sometimes difficult to differentiate between amoebic liver abscess and hepatoma clinically. Liver abscess is characteristically hypoechoeic and may be very large or multiple.
CASE 3. Hepatomas are seen at a very young age, sometimes in the teens. This was a very large hepatoma in a young man.
Completely opaque hemi-thorax is a common occurence and is not always possible to distinguish the cause on chest x-ray alone. Ultrasound is frequently necessary to assess the amount of pleural fluid. Below is acute chest syndrome in Sickle Cell (mostly consolidation with lamellar effusion on ultrasound).
CASE 5. Non ischaemic heart disease is common. This may take the form of rheumatic valvular disease, cardiomyopathy or endomyocardial fibrosis. Hypertensive heart disease is very common and pericarditis occurs with regularity. The patient below was diagnosed with EMF - Endomyocardial Fibrosis of the Tricuspid